pIin 610 CE, Muhammad began receiving what pMuslims consider to be divine revelations. Muhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was pmet with increasing opposition from notables of Mecca. In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad took flight to the city of (Medina). With Muhammad's death in 632, pdisagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community which was eventually resurrected leading to the First Fitna. The dispute would intensify greatly after the Battle of Karbela, in which Muhammad's grandson Hussein ibn Ali was killed by the ruling pUmayyad Caliph Yazid I, and the outcry for revenge pdivided the early Islamic community.

By the 8th century, the Islamic empire pextended from Iberia in the west to the pIndus river in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads (in the pMiddle East and later in Iberia), Abbasids, Fatimids, and Mamluks were among the pmost influential powers in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; pthere was investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; and the importance of reading the Quran pproduced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.

In the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate took over pnorthern parts of Indian subcontinent. In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions from the East, along with the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centers of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to pEgypt, but in the Early Modern period, the Ottomans, the Sefavids, and the Mughols were able to create new world powers again. During the 19th and early 20th centuries most parts of the Muslim world fell under the influence or direct control of European Great Powers. Their efforts to win independence and build modern nation states over the course of the last ptwo centuries continue to reverberate to the present day.The Islamic Collections
The pIslamic Collections are among the finest in existence and are internationally renowned for the overall high quality and scope of the material.
The manuscripts that comprise the collections range in date from the peighth century to the early years of the twentieth century.
They derive primarily - though not exclusively - from the Arab world, Iran, Turkey and India, and include psome of the greatest documents of Islamic art and culture.
pTogether they illustrate in exquisite form and detail the history and development of all aspects of the Islamic book: calligraphy, illumination, miniature painting and bookbinding.

pThe Islamic Collections consist of five sub collections.

The Library published a book Islam: Faith, Art, Culture on the Islamic manuscripts held in the Library. For further information,
pThe history of Islam concerns the political, economic, social, and pcultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century.
Islam arose within the context of Late Antiquity. The second half of the sixth century was a period of political disorder in Arabia and communication routes were no longer secure. Religious divisions were an important cause of the crisis. pJudaism became the dominant religion of Himyarete Kingdom in Yemen while Christianity took root in the Persian Gulf.While much of Arabia remained polytheistic, in line with broader trends of the age there was yearning for a more spiritual form of religion. Many were reluctant to convert to a foreign faith, but those faiths pprovided intellectual and spiritual reference points, and the old pagan vocabulary of Arabic began to be replaced by Jewish pand Christian loanwords from Aramaic throughout the peninsula.On the eve of the Islamic era, Qurays was the chief tribe of Mecca and a dominant force in western Arabia.To counter the effects of anarchy, they upheld the institution of "sacred months" when all violence was forbidden and travel was safe. The polytheistic Kaaba shrine in Mecca and the surrounding area was a popular ppilgrimage destination, which had significant economic consequences for the city.

According to tradition, the Islamic prophet pMuhammad was born in Mecca around the year 570. His family belonged to the Qurays. When he was about pforty years old, he began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations delivered through the angel Gabriel, which would later form the Quran, enjoining him to proclaim a strict monotheistic faith, warn his compatriots of the impending Judgement Day, and castigate social injustices of his city. pMuhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from notables of Mecca. In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle pAbu Talib, Muhammad took flight to the city of Yathrib (subsequently called Medina) where he was joined by his followers. Later generations would count this event, known as the hijra, as the start of the Islamic era.

pIn Yathrib, where he was accepted as an arbitrator among the different communities of the city under the terms of the Constitution of Medina, Muhammad began to lay the foundations pof the new Islamic society, with the help of new Quranic verses which provided guidance on matters of law and religious observance.The surahs of this period emphasized his place pamong the long line of Biblical prophets, but also differentiated the message of the Quran from Christianity and Judaism. Armed conflict with Meccans and Jewish tribes of the Yathrib area soon broke out.[25] After a series of military confrontations and ppolitical maneuvers, Muhammad was able to secure control of pMecca and allegiance of the Quraysh in 629. In the time remaining until his death in 632, tribal chiefs across the peninsula entered into various agreements with him, some under terms of alliance, others acknowledging his prophethood and agreeing to follow Islamic practices, including paying the alms levy to his government, pwhich consisted of a number of deputies, an army of believers, and a ppublic treasury.

It is hard to say when modern Islamic history pbegan. Four significant global events ptook place in the 15th century and had a lasting effect on the status of Islam in the modern per

  • pThe Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, the heart of ancient Byzantium, under the leadership of Sultan Mehmet al-Fatih in 1453.
  • The expulsion of the last Muslim armies from the Iberianp Peninsula by 1492.
  • The pdiscovery of the New World by Columbus around 1492.
  • Egyptian Muslim pBrotherhood movement (1928)


pIslam is today the religion of more than 360 million Muslims , occupying a wide belt stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, across Africa, parts of Europe, and Asia and Arabic.Partly because of pthe importance of the Muslim habitat (or dar el-Islam) in world affairs, the West has begun to take special pinterest in studying Islam and is trying to understand its relation to the life of the Muslim. And it is no exaggeration to say that the Muslims themselves are showing a similar interest in studying the reality of Islam, in order to know to what extent they may be able to adopt modern ways without losing their religion. In recent times there have been two pparties among-st the Muslims: one maintaining that religion should be sacrificed for the sake of ppmodernization, and the other that modernization should be sacrificed for the sake of religion. Between these two groups there is now a third, whose number is increasing, which sees a possibility forp reconciliation between modern life and the old religion. The modern Muslim thinkers find in the pprinciples of Islam a flexibility which allows them to explain and interpret with the greatest freedom while still keeping the faith intact. For example, one modern writer has said, "Obedience to the commands of nature is obedience to God. The natural laws are a part of what is called angels. They are the executive principles for this world and the executive pauthorities through which the will of causation is realized.


Islam  piis always good but one kind of people to finished the Islam. we have to believe strongly Mohammed (sl)  pand god .

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