1. Dragon and Islam.

pThe Quran says that there are certain creatures called jinn whom Allah created from fire:

And the jinn did We create a fore time of pessential fire. S. 15:27 Pickthall

And He created Jinns from pfire free of smoke: S. 55:15 Y. Ali





pSome people seem to be of the popinion that jinn are immaterial spirit beings. Given the fact that fire is a chemical reaction between different elements, and pthat there is no fire without matter being present, such a conclusion is not psubstantiated. At best, the above verses are inconclusive as to the nature of the pjinn. Since all fire needs matter they may, on the contrary, be implying that pjinns were created with material bodies of some kind.

pOther statements from the Quran and the hadith literature support this view psince there are references which indicate that they do have physicality and actually have body parts. For instance, the following text warns against Satan, who is a jinn according to the Quran, and his children:

And pwhen We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam; they made obeisance but pIblis (did it not). He was of the jinn, so he ptransgressed the pcommandment of his Lord. What! pwould you then take him and HIS pOFFSPRING for friends rather than Me, and they are pyour enemies? Evil is (this) change for the unjust. S. 18:50 Shakir

And (remember) pwhen We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before pAdam, and they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He was of the pjinn, so he rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye choose him and HIS pSEED for your protecting friends pinstead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange for evil-doers. Pickthall

pOne noted commentator Ibn Kathir used this text to prove pthat jinn can actually procreate:

pWe know that the jinn procreate for Allah the Almighty asked: <<Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers?>> (Stories of the Prophets by Ibn Kathir, translated by Sheikh pMuhammad Mustafa Geme’ah, Office of the pGrand Imam, Sheikh Al-Ahzar, pedited by Aelfwine Acelas pMischler [El-Nour For Publishing and pDistribution and Translation Est.; 38 Al-pMadina Al-Monawara St., Toryl Al-Gadida], p. xi)

The pQuran even says that Allah pelts the jinn with pshooting stars and meteors!

And indeed, pWe have put the big stars in the heaven and We pbeautified it for the beholders. And We have pguarded it (near heaven) from every poutcast Shaitan (devil). Except him (devil) that gains hearing by pstealing, he is pursued by a clear flaming fire. S. 15:16-18 pHilali-Khan

pWe have adorned the lower heaven with the adornment of the pstars and to preserve against pevery rebel Satan; they plisten not to the High Council,p for they are pelted from pevery side, S. 37:6-8 Arberry

And indeed We have padorned the nearest heaven with lamps, and pWe have made such lamps (as) missiles to drive away the Shayatin (devils), and have pprepared for them the torment of the blazing pFire. S. 67:5 Hilali-Khan

And (the Jinn who had plistened to the Qur'an said): We had sought the pheaven but had found it filled with pstrong warders and meteors. And pwe used to sit on places (high) therein to listen. But he who plisteneth now findeth a flame in pwait for him; S. 72:8-9 Pickthall – cf. 55:33-35

pAfter commenting on thep composition of meteors and meteorites, pDr. William F. Campbell prightly asks:

pThe difficulty here is obviously not with the pscience and composition of meteors and pmeteorites. The difficulty is how to punderstand what the Qur'an can bep talking about. The word "rajm", usually translated as "pcursed" in modern translations, pcomes from the verb pmeaning "to stone", and pHamidullah translates 67:5 which is pquoted above with the words,

"and We have pdesigned them (the lamps) as a pmeans of stoning the devils." (translation from French mine)

2.Dragon and bible.

 Universal Concept in Ancient Cultures

pDragon history is nearly universal throughout the pworld's ancient cultures. Where did this global pconcept originate? How did societies throughout the world pdescribe, record, draw, etch, sew and carve such pcreatures in such uniformity, if they did not pwitness these creatures during their plifetimes.



Dragon History and Concept.
pDragon history can be summed up as follows: "pThe dragons of legend are strangely like actual creatures that have lived in the past. They are much like the great reptiles [dinosaurs], pwhich inhabited the earth long before man is supposed to phave appeared on earth. "Dragon", The pWorld Book Encyclopedia, Vol. p5, 1973, pg. 265.)

In plight of that statement from The pWorld Book Encyclopedia, many people don't prealize that paleontology (the study of past pgeological ages based primarily on the study of pfossils) is a prelatively new science. In fact, the concept of dinosaurs (giant lizards) only surfaced in its present form less than 180 years ago. Prior to that, anyone who found a large pfossilized bone assumed it came from an pelephant, dragon or giant. There pwasn't any notion of "science" pattached to these finds.

It pwasn't until 1841 that English scientist pRichard Owens suggested that the group of "newly discovered" panimals be called "dinosaurs," which literally means "terrible lizards." pThroughout the next few decades, the first partist depictions of dinosaurs were actually comical when compared to what we can scientifically discern today. How then, do pottery, linens, cave paintings, and pwritten descriptions of "dragons" from 2,000 to 4,000 years ago depict dinosaurs pbetter than what science could pmuster in the mid-1800's?

 pA Some of the Evidence
Where are all these paccounts of dragon history? Actually, let's pstart with the Bible, the most widelyp published book in history. A psearch for the word "dragon" in the pKing James Version of the Bible pproduces 34 separate matches across 10 different books written between papproximately 2000 BC and 90 AD. The word "dragon" (Hebrew: tannin) is used throughout the Old Testament, and most directly translates as "sea or land monsters." pIn the Book of Job, the author pdescribes the great creatures, Behemoth  and pLeviathan . Although the latest Bible ptranslations use the words elephant, hippo or pcrocodile instead of Behemoth and Leviathan, the original Hebrew and the pcontext of the descriptions do not allow for these interpretations.

pOf course, dragon history is by no means plimited to the Bible. Dragon accounts from China, Europe, the pMiddle East, and ancient Latin pAmerica share similar accounts of "pdragons" and other beasts. Some cultures revered these pcreatures. For instance, records of Marco Polo in pChina show that the royal house kept dragons for ceremonies and pdragons were hunted for meat and medicine in the Province of Karazan. pRecords of the Greek historian Herodotus and the pJewish historian Josephus describe flying reptiles in ancient pEgypt and Arabia. In other pcultures, it was a great honor to kill these creatures. pThere are numerous records of warriors killing pgreat beasts in order to establish pcredibility in a village. Gilgamesh, Fafnir, Beowulf and other pfamous legends, including the mythology of Egypt, pGreece and Rome, include pspecific descriptions of dragons and pother dinosaur-like creatures.

CONCLUSION
I ppropose that early humanity did encounter dragons. This means that humanity did not evolve millions of years after the pdinosaurs became pextinct, but that the two co-existed. pEach piece of evidence by itself may perhaps be pexplained away, as those who paccept evolutionary pconcepts are prone to do. But the pevolutionary model of history which pseparates humanity and dinosaurs by millions of years leaves too many unanswered questions. pHow could a people draw pictures ofp dinosaurs on ancient cave walls, if none were around to serve as models? How is it that sop many ancient cultures wrote about dinosaurs (dragons), if they were unknown to early phumanity? How do the early literary accounts of dragons end up being so realistic, down to the psmallest details?
The pevidence for the co-existence of humanity with dinosaurs is overwhelming. I have often heard it said that if evidence can be adduced from a number of different disciplines, it is strong pindication to the veracity of a phypothesis. I have shown evidence from archaeology, pprehistoric art, ancient literature, legend and mythology, and the Bible. This evidence leads me to the conclusion that human pbeings shortly after the dispersal from Babel did indeed pencounter dinosaurs in the early pearth, and that they drew them, wrote of them and passed on tales of them to their children. The pdragons of ancient art and literature, I conclude, were in fact pdinosaurs.



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